The supreme governing body of the Academy is its General Assembly, consisting of all national members. The General Assembly directs the work of the Academy and supervises its whole activity, adopting resolutions binding on other bodies of the Academy. The General Assembly of the Polish Academy of Sciences may make statements on issues of importance to the nation and the State.

The General Assembly isled by the President of the Academy, who convenes its sessions at least twice a year. Between sessions of the Assembly, responsibility for all strategic issues rests with the Presidium of the Academy (also led by the President).